Changing Patterns of Marriage Ceremonies (Part-4)
Different cultures emphasize different things. Cultures are integrated and patterned differently and display tremendous variation and diversity. When cultural traits are borrowed, they are modified to fit the culture that adopts them. They are reintegrated-patterned anew to fit their new setting.
Why and how do cultures change? One way is diffusion or borrowing of traits between cultures. Such exchange of information and products has gone on throughout human history because cultures never have been truly isolated. Contact between neighboring groups has always existed and has extended over vast areas Diffusion is direct when two cultures trade with, intermarry among, or wage war on one another.
Diffusion is forced when one culture subjugates another and imposes its customs on the dominated group. Diffusion is indirect when items or traits move from group A to group C via group B without any firsthand contact between A and C. In this case, group B might consist of traders or merchants who take products from a variety of places to new markets. Or group B might be geographically situated between A and C, so that what it gets from A eventually winds up in C, and vice versa. In today’s world, much international diffusion is indirect-culture spread by the mass media and advanced information technology.
Consider universal life-cycle events, such as birth, puberty, marriage, parenthood, and death that many cultures observe and celebrate. The occasions (e.g., marriage, death) may be the same and universal, but the patterns of ceremonial observance may be dramatically different. Cultures vary in just which events merit special celebration. Americans, for example, regard expensive weddings as more socially appropriate than lavish funerals.
Acculturation, a second mechanism of cultural change, is the exchange of cultural features that results when groups have continuous firsthand contact. The cultures of either or both groups may be changed by this contact, with acculturation, parts of the cultures change, but each group remains distinct. One example of acculturation is a pidgin, a mixed language that develops to ease communication between members of different cultures in contact.
This usually happens in situations of trade or colonialism. Pidgin English, for example, is a simplified form of English. It blends English grammar with the grammar of a native language. Pidgin English was first used for commerce in Chinese ports. Similar pidgins developed later in Papua New Guinea and West Africa. In situations of continuous contact, cultures have also exchanged and blended foods, recipes, music, dances, clothing, tools, and technologies.
Independent invention is the process by which humans innovates, creatively finding solutions to problems are a third mechanism of cultural change. Faced with comparable problems and challenges, people in different societies have innovated and changed in similar ways, which is one reason cultural generalities exist.
The term globalization encompasses a series of processes, including diffusion and acculturation, working to promote change in a world in which nations and people are increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent. Promoting such linkages is economic and political forces, as well as modem systems of transportation and communication. The forces of globalization include international commerce and finance, travel and tourism, transnational migration, the media, and various high-tech information flows.
Marriage patterns are changing in conjunction with other transformations throughout the Asia. In spite of regional variations in rates and degree, the overwhelming pattern is toward a later marriage age. Macro-level analysis has indicated that education, changing occupational structure and urbanization increase female marriage ages. Cultural ideals have also influenced the patterns of marriages.
Alliance s is the other reason for change in the patterns of marriage. People seek for good political ideology and identity and accept outside marriages from the kin relatives. Age differentials also affected the change and social values are performing to provide suitable choices for spouses according to the availability of the sources.
Biradari is also playing its role in the institution of marriage in the rural areas of the south Punjab like in Taunsa. The Biradari system is also a kind of public pressure to get unite the kin group with the application of endogamy practices. But due to change this is also going to be weakening day after day.
Continuity is absolute because of human natural desire. The survival of human beings requires the continuity of this institution of marriage. There may be many factors which are responsible for the carryon of this activity. Mostly the religious factors affect the society to continue this activity. The people of this society perform the endogamous attitude in the context of marriages. But the change is occurring alongside the reality.
Throughout the research it was found that there were many factors which were affecting the patterns of marriages in the specific area of study like Taunsa. These were important to disclose in the understanding of the topic and its concepts of change.
One of the most important factors which were affecting the patterns of marriage was education. Education has caused occupational mobility among the individuals of the Taunsa. Educated persons are working in private and government departments like police, NGOs, agricultural departments and education departments. Due to education people have the ability to read newspapers, and search jobs on internet. That is why they move to urban cities with their families. They also prefer to marry a well-educated girl to lessen the expenditures with her job in the cities. The people do not engage themselves in old traditional values of marriages due to the need of time and change in the desires of the people.
Due to private pick and drop facilities the students move from one city to other city for getting good education. There is mobility of people and bringing change, Girls can move from one school to other school and colleges. There they a better chance of choosing their suitable life partner. That leads to exogamy Due to this change the marriage ceremonies also have changed.
Case Study No.1
This is an important case study to understand the phenomena of socio-cultural change in the society of Taunsa. Mr. Amber Zaman was a Doctor and belongs to Qaisrani Tribe. His son was Mr. Azam who was studying in the University of Engineering and Technology Lahore. He got his masters in civil engineering. After completing his degree, he got a good job in Lahore. He was engaged with his cousin in his early age.
His cousin was not educated. When the time came for marriage, the boy refused. The reason was asked from boy by his father. He replied that I wanted to marry an educated girl who would be able to earn money by doing her job. The refusal was based on the education.
Because the boy was well educated and he did his decision to marry an educated girl so that they might live happy life in the future. After that his father decided to marry his son in the neighbour. A girl was well educated and their family was very respectable in the society. His father sent a proposal with his wife which was accepted. Then the marriage was occurred between two different kin groups. It was a practice of exogamy.