Changing Patterns of Marriage Ceremonies (Part-6)
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Lower living standards and poor economic positions forced the people to migrate. The unemployment and inflation are the main reasons of migration. People migrate to other places to better their life style and economic positions which ultimately influences the patterns of marriage ceremonies.
In the past people were dependent upon their agriculture and land for their subsistence. They have a lot of time free to do other tasks. But now the things have changed according to the circumstances. The dominating factors of migration are political, economic, religious, social, demographic and educational.
Migration has influenced the traditional ways of performing marriage ceremonies. Due to the private sectors job people cannot afford many days to stay in the marriage. They try to finish this ceremony in very short time like 2 to 4 days. If the people of group who are serving in other cities as a private service provider, then there will be chances of shortest way of performing marriage ceremonies.
Migration is also fueled by rapid population growth, coupled with insufficient jobs (both for educated and uneducated people) , in the less developed countries. As traditional rural economies decline or mechanize displaced farmers move to cities, where they and their children are often unable to find jobs. As people in the less developed countries get better educations, they seek more skilled employment.
The job loosing fear forces the people to spend less time in the marriage ceremonies. That is the reason for the modification of patterns of marriage ceremonies in the area of Taunsa.
Urbanization has influenced the traditional values and ceremonies of marriages in the rural society. A person, who has grown up in a rural area and migrated to urban city, will share the both culture of urban and rural society. That is the reason now in Taunsa, as the patterns of marriage ceremonies are going to be changed.
In any society, urban and rural represent different social systems. However, cultural diffusion or borrowing occurs as people, products, and messages move from one place to the other. Migrants bring rural practices and beliefs to town and take urban patterns back home. The experiences and social forms of the rural area affect adaptation to city life.
Due to urbanization the people used to wear imported dresses instead of “Shalwar kameez”. The bride wears the “Lehnga” instead of “Shalwar Kameez”. Similarly the groom wears Sherwani instead of “Lungi”, “Kameez” and “Paggari”.
The other reason for changes in the patterns of marriage is the age differentials. The girls and boys have a material and significant age differences. The people look for a suitable couple for living a better marital life. Because of age gap the trend is changing in the society. Now the trend for cousin marriages is also changing and losing its intensity in the rural society of Taunsa.
For instance the girl has age of 25 years but the boy has age of 7 years. The situation here is difficult for happening of marriage in between these two individuals. Then the solution is the exogamy for continuance of the institution of marriage in the society.
Case Study No.2
Mrs. Shaheen was a married woman. She had three daughters with ages of 18, 23, 26 years respectively. She had one brother and two sisters. They all were unmarried. But her husband had only one sister who was also unmarried. Now there was no suitable pair in the group.
She tried to find a suitable boy for her daughters to marry. Then she married her daughters out of family because of the unavailability of the suitable boys for her daughters. But there was a boy, and his age was 5 years and was not suitable for the marriage. That is why the patterns of marriages are changing. The main reason of change in this case is the unavailability and age differential of suitable and matching couple.
The researcher concluded the research topic that marriage was a source of change in status of the individuals; it also ultimately led to continuation of the family by the process of procreation. Fertility and virginity were the most important indicators in the marriage. Fertile women were considered as a source of prosperity and progress as compared to infertile women. The practice of early marriage was common to ensure the concept of virginity of women.
Social and cultural meanings were attached with the fertility and virginity in this area. It was a factor of strengthening the relation of marriage. If there was any doubtfulness, it would end the marriage and destroyed families. Sensitivity was dedicated with the concept of marriage and its maintenances to a longer time period. It was the completeness of family of the couple and socially appreciated and acknowledged with the evidence of fertility. Offspring brought harmony and strength to the bond of marriage. It was the success of the marriage linked with the relations of the both families and groups into the contract.
In universal life-cycle events, such as birth, puberty, marriage, parenthood, and death that many cultures observe and celebrate. The occasions (e.g., marriage, death) may be the same and universal, but the patterns of ceremonial observance may be dramatically different. Cultures vary in just which events merit special celebration. Diffusion and acculturation, mechanism of cultural change, is the exchange of cultural features that results when groups have continuous firsthand contact. The cultures of either or both groups may be changed by this contact, with acculturation, parts of the cultures change, but each group remains distinct.
This usually happens in situations of trade or colonialism. In situations of continuous contact, cultures have also exchanged and blended foods, recipes, music, dances, clothing, tools, and technologies. Independent invention is the process by which humans innovates, creatively finding solutions to problems are a third mechanism of cultural change. Faced with comparable problems and challenges, people in different societies have innovated and changed in similar ways, which is one reason cultural generalities exist.
The term globalization encompasses a series of processes, including diffusion and acculturation, working to promote change in a world in which nations and people are increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent. Promoting such linkages is economic and political forces, as well as modem systems of transportation and communication. The forces of globalization include international commerce and finance, travel and tourism, transnational migration, the media, and various high-tech information flows.
Marriage patterns are changing in conjunction with other transformations throughout the Asia. In spite of regional variations in rates and degree, the overwhelming pattern is toward a later marriage age. Macro-level analysis has indicated that education, changing occupational structure and urbanization increase female marriage ages. Cultural ideals have also influenced the patterns of marriages.
Alliance s is the other reason for change in the patterns of marriage. People seek for good political ideology and identity and accept outside marriages from the kin relatives. Age differentials also affected the change and social values are performing to provide suitable choices for spouses according to the availability of the sources.
Biradari is also playing its role in the institution of marriage in the rural areas of the south Punjab like in Taunsa. The Biradari system is also a kind of public pressure to get unite the kin group with the application of endogamy practices. But due to change this is also going to be weakening day after day.
Aaga A function of marriage ceremony
Barat A function of marriage ceremony
Biradari A group with common ancestor
Choonrri Bhanai A function of breaking pottery by groom
Depa Gifts from friends and relatives
Dhouk A custom of sending proposal for a girl
Dua-e-Khair Praying after acceptance of proposal
Gadd mewa A gift of dry fruits
Gana bandhai Wearing wedding bracelet in the wrest of groom
Gandhein Fixing date of Nikah
Jhomar Tarri A traditional dance
Jonn A feast given to the participants (male & female
Kandhi da bhaji tukkur Serving tasty food to invited persons
Kandhy Invitation Cards
Katcha House built with mud bricks and wood
Kheer pilai Presenting delicious milk to bride and groom
Korri roti Serving food to the individuals of deceased family
Lehnga A bridal dress
Lungi A special unstitched cloth used as pent by males
Mail A function of marriage ceremony
Mendhi A function of marriage ceremony
Mohaari napai Bride receives gifts from father in law
Neendr Receiving cash gifts
Nikah A function of marriage ceremony
Othanwanrr A function of departure of bride after Nikah
Paggari Men wearing cloth of their heads with a style
Parrna A function of marriage ceremony
Pucca House built with cement and concrete
Roti A bread
Sambhal Vandai Distribution of cooked rice to Biradari
Satto warra A custom of bringing bride to her parents’ house for several days after Walima
Sehry Singing traditional songs
Vorrhi A function of marriage ceremony
Walima A feast given by groom after Nikah