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Ethnographic Study of Voting Behaviour of Youth (Part-2)

Ethnographic Study of Voting Behaviour of Youth (Part-2)

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Voting behaviour and partisan development has deep connections with each other. This connection was not taken into account prior to 1940s but new academic researches spectacles the importance of the role of the voting behaviour of Youth especially of political thespians in the development.

 Intensity and types of participation

Pakistani Youth always contributes in social life. But this contribution is not constant: the intensity and types of participation are relevant variables in political analysis. Voting behaviour is very imperative aspect of human beings because through this we can know the will of people and also their political orientations.

Political culture refers more specifically to behaviours and belief systems which relate to politically relevant objects. It incorporates the political ideals and operating norms of groups and sets the dominant tone of national political life.

(Rosenbaum, 1976, p.72)

Political culture

The ability of a political system to function adequately and maintain itself – i.e., system maintenance – depends upon the strength of several variables, and the linkages and interaction between them. One of the more critical variables is represented by “supports” the system gets from the society. Political culture is, therefore, defined as “The patterns of individual attitudes and orientations towards politics among the members of a political system” (Hashmi, 1987, p.96).

Youth

It is two thousand three hundred years since Aristotle wrote of youth:

The young are in character prone to desire and ready to carry any desire they may have formed into action. They are passionate, irascible, and apt to be carried away by their impulses.

(Chowdhry & Kakar, 1970, p.1)

            Support

For without support from other components in the system, demands cannot be acted upon, processed and transformed into binding decisions. Supportive behaviour expresses itself through overt actions.

            Orientations

Among other things, such overt action expresses itself in ones voting for the candidate, promoting the actions, interests and goals of another person, as well as through internal forms of behaviour, called orientations or states of mind. These orientations are in turn represented by a deep seated set of attitudes of predispositions such as ingrained supportive feelings of loyalty (or feelings of aversion) to the party, the regime, the political system, or its ideals. Because orientations, whether positive or negative, provide the basis for, and give meaning to, political actions, they are considered extremely crucial in terms of inputs for the operation and maintenance of the system. For this reason as well, they represent the political culture of the constituents of a political system.

            Individual orientations

Individual orientations may be cognitive, affective and evaluative. Almond and Powell have defined cognitive orientations as:

Knowledge, accurate or otherwise, of political objects or beliefs”; affective orientations as “feelings of attachment, involvement, rejection and the like, about political objects”; and evaluative orientations as “judgments and opinions about political objects, which usually involve applying value standards to political objects and events.

(Rosenbaum, 1976, p.73)

These three categories of orientations though involve different levels of political behaviour, may yet be combined together by an individual in a variety of ways.

            Environment

Real societies exist in time and space. The demographic, ecological, economic and external political situation does not build up into a fixed environment, but into a constantly changing environment.

           Primordial attachments

The variables affecting the voting behaviour of youth are the ideas and beliefs which drive them to reach ultimate destination in the political decisions. Another thing which is also important to emphasize is the primordial attachments of the youngster. These variables are important to note about the incorporation of political organization.  According to Rose “Ideas and beliefs can only influence conduct alongside personal ties, primordial attachments, and responsibilities to corporate bodies…” (Rose, 1967, p.178).

           Voter

The eligibility to vote in the elections of Pakistan is definitely important to understand the topic and subject matter. The main focus is on the voters and their decisions to cast vote among the youth. The Election Commission of Pakistan has defined this eligibility according to the laws of the state. This shows the information about the voters who are eligible to cast vote.

A person who is the citizen of Pakistan, is not less than 18 years of age on the first day of the January of the year in which the rolls are prepared or revised, is not declared by a competent court to be of unsound mind and is or is deemed to be the resident of an electoral area, can get himself enrolled as a voter in the electoral area. The citizens registered on the electoral roll are only eligible to cast their vote.[1]

       Voting

Voting defined by Universal Declaration of Human Right as “Voting is the fundamental right of almost all citizens over the age of eighteen. It ensures that will of the people is preserved”.[2]

Sources:

[1]ECP laws for eligibility of voter available at www.ecp.gov.pk

[2]Annual report on State of human rights 2008 issued by Human Right Commission of Pakistan.

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