Ethnographic Study of Voting Behaviour of Youth (Part-7)
With the report of Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, it was noticed that total number of life time in-migrants was 397,371 settled in urban and rural areas of Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) in 1998. The urban in-migrants were 312,640 while the rural in-migrants were 85,091. This was 49.4 per cent of the total population of the district Islamabad.
The life time in-migrants from various provinces were 350,237, from Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas were 26,122 as well as from other countries were 21,372. So majority of them belonged to provinces of Pakistan. The number of in-migrants from other countries was very small as compared to the in-migrants of provinces.
The most of them were migrated due to their employment in different public and private sectors of Pakistan. Most of mobility was due to the transfer of economic resources in Islamabad.
There were many sampling methods available to the researcher for the collection of data about the research topic. These were relevant to qualitative and quantitative research methods. But the researcher applied snowball sampling method to find out the fruitful and accurate data about the research topic.
The most suitable methods of data acquisition were adopting the anthropological research methodologies. The researcher worked in the field and followed the every suitable method to find out the authentic and un-biased data from the field relevant to the subject matter. The purpose of this technique was to prove the objective approach instead of the subjective one in the overall field work.
The researcher analyzed the collected data through the literature review, daily diary, field notes and the events and discussion that were recorded by keeping the hypothesis and objectives of the study in mind and succeeded to formulate a comprehensive detailed study.
Focus on the gathered data, reading them within the context of the setting and the research purpose, and usually employ a basic, descriptive content analysis.
According to W.L. Neuman
A research report is a written document (or oral presentation based on a written document) that communicates the methods and findings of a research project to others. It is more than a summary of findings; it is a record of the research process.
(Neuman, 2012, )
Observation means to see the things or to see the community. A researcher can easily collect the information through observation. Observation is a very interesting tool for research work. Through observation researcher throws light on those things, which are underestimated by the society or society ignored them. There are two types of observation:
Participant observation is a very important tool in anthropological studies. Through Participant observation a researcher participate in the daily activities of the society. It is very help full for collecting the data and winning the confidence of the respondents.
Pelto and Pelto said that
The relative un-systemized scanning of information’s through participant observation is basic to all there other, more refined research techniques. Preliminary data from participant observations provide the fieldworker with insights and clues necessary for developing interview questions. Psychological tests are other more specialized research tools.
(Pelto, 1978, )
In such types of observation, researcher did not participate in any activity. He only sees the activity and describe as it was.
During the field work the researcher used the tool for the collection of reliable data that was needed for the completion of research. Through the observation, the researcher also checked the condition of political activities for the demonstration of voting behaviour. Through that tool, the researcher also checked the behaviour of the young people with their fellows and friends.
Key informant is necessary for the fieldwork. A key informant has the knowledge of the community, its people, its demographic profile, customs and culture and capable of expressing information and provide the detailed knowledge about the field to the research. The Key informants are very help full for the researcher.
As Pelto and Pelto argued as: “More than someone who controlled a lot of information about a culture and will to talk to you” (Ibid, 1978, ).
In the fieldwork, three young persons were selected as key informants along with seven students who were studying in different grades. The key informants helped the researcher very much. They gave him much information about the voting behaviour of youth. They also helped the researcher in building the rapport in the sector.
Method of sampling was adopted by the researcher to select a small group of people being the representative of the whole community to easily interact with them to have in-depth information required for the research. The method of sampling being a useful tool provide opportunities for the researcher to explore more and more information within short and limited time without spending huge amount of money. According to W. Lawrence Neuman (2012) sampling is “A smaller set of cases a researcher selects from a larger pool and generalizes to the population” (Neuman, 2012, ).
To make the research study more fruitful, the Snowball sampling was adopted to examine the whole community according to the schedule. Snowball Sampling is a method used to obtain required data from a smaller group of people of a specific community.
An individual or a group of people has information about the locality, its people, their life pattern etc. This is referred to metaphorically as snowball sampling because as more relationships are built through mutual association, more connections can be made through the new relationships and a plethora of information can be shared and collected, much like a snowball that rolls and increases in size as it collects more snow. The researcher’s sample size was 78 households selected with the consultation of key informants.
During the field work, sampling was more important for the researcher.
A smaller collection of units from a much larger collection or population, such that researcher can study the smaller group and produce accurate generalization about the larger group.
(Ibid, 2012, )
A study based on a representative sample, however, is often better than one based on the whole population. That is sample data may have greater internal validity than data from the whole population.