Ethnographic Study of Voting Behaviour of Youth (Part-8)
Researcher conducted interviews during the field work for collecting detailed data. The interviews were the face to face contact with the respondents in a friendly atmosphere for knowing their perceptions and experience about specific phenomena that was under study. The interviews were conducted in structured and unstructured way.
The researcher adopted the interview method and obtained lot of information that was required according to the research topic. The interviews conducted by the researcher during the entire research work were 100. The participants very friendly and discussed the different aspects of Voting Behaviour of Youth in details.
When a researcher conducts the research in an unknown community, he has to note the discussions, events and personal observation in the field note book for remembering the important events during compilation of the data.
The researcher used the field notes method during the field work and got its numerous benefits and wrote the entries in descriptive manner in the daily dairy.
Methodological notes are also about your own growth as an instrument of data collection. Collecting data is always awkward when you begin a field, but gets easier as you become more comfortable in a new culture.
The researcher used the method of daily diary during the field work to write each and every activity and findings in the leisure time of evening by using the field notes that helped the researcher to re-call some of the discussions and events that were forgotten completely but were of very informative nature. The writing of daily diary has been practiced by almost all the ethnographers in the field.
In the qualitative research, the interviews and formal and informal discussion were generally tape recorded and transcribed whenever possible. The researchers are not just interested in what the respondents said how they contributed their views, if this aspect is fully woven into an analysis, it seems necessary for a complete account of exchange of views to be readily available to the researcher for the time and again consultation and probing where necessary.
It was an extra effort for the researcher to record the conversation in between the respondents during interviews and discussions but the activity was continued throughout the field work for having a live record of the events.
The tool of photography was also used by the researcher during the field research as a non-verbal mechanical aid in order to capture informal facts about the lives of the people as used in almost all the anthropological field works. The researcher taken photos of the participants of interviews both men and women retirees, the notables of the area, place of historical nature and formal and informal gatherings for providing an authentic touch to the research study by making them its part.
Rapport building is the first step in anthropological research through which the researcher establishes his relation with the community under investigation as stated by W. Lawrence Neuman
A field researcher builds rapport by getting along with members in the field. He or she forges a friendly relationship, shares the same language, and laughs and cries with members. This is a step toward obtaining an understanding of members and moving beyond understanding to empathy that is seeing and feeling events from another’s perspective.
(Neuman, 2012, )
A person who has knowledge about a particular community is key called informant. The main purpose of rapport building was to create relations with the native people because without their help the research objects cannot be achieved until the friendly relations are built among the researcher and the people, therefore the rapport establishment was the first step after entering into the locale of study.
The rapport building was not an easy task, it was accomplished with utmost efforts with the help of few know persons who introduced the researcher as a highly qualified person and explained the research motives, while the researcher to become familiar among the local people participated in their day-to-day activities and specially arranged ceremonies like marriage, birthday and death rituals.
The first anthropological technique employed was to take the people in confidence and develop friendly relations with them. In the beginning people hesitated to give answers of the questions. But later on the problem was solved through informal discussions, while the social economic and census survey technique helped in gaining people’s confidence and raising their comfort level. Report establishment was easier with females than male but overall it was a good job.
During the field research, rapport building is very important for an anthropologist. Researcher create suitable environment and develop his trust during the field research in the people. It is a tough job for researcher but it is necessary.
The method of rapport building was adopted by the researcher and no notable trouble was faced during the whole process because of frequent interaction with the young people. The researcher participated in their daily activities, worked as political worker in the sector and also eaten food with some of the known persons of the sector that were the key steps towards the friendly rapport building.
Focus group discussion is used by the anthropologists for getting different opinions on the issue under investigation in the given period of time. In this method researcher interviews a group of people for getting knowledge so that if one member hides the data the other one share the same according to his/her opinion, while the group should be heterogeneous in which the respondents should not know each other.
This technique was used during the research being a very authentic tool to gather primary data according to the topic of research. The researcher conducted many group discussions through which detailed data was obtained being a multi-dimensional information system. W. Lawrence Neumann argued that “The focus group is a special qualitative research technique in which people are informally “interviewed” in a group-discussion setting” (Ibid, 2012, ).
According to Morgan the focus group discussion should contain the basics as stated below:
The interview while a small group discusses the topics that the interviewer raises. What the “Focus groups are group interviews. A moderator guides participants in the group say during their field discussions are the essential data in focus group.
(Morgan, 1997, )
Morgan, D. L. (1997). The Focus Group Guide Book. Sage Publishers.
Neuman, W. (2012). Social Research Methods. New Dehli: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
Russell, B. H. (2002). Research Methods in Anthropology. Sage Publishers.