Ethnographic Study of Voting Behaviour of Youth (Part-9)
VARIABLES MANIPULATING THE VOTING BEHAVIOUR OF YOUTH
The variables influencing the voting behaviour of Youth could be in the form of religion, parents (source of enculturation), race, ethnicity, mass media, class, education, political socialization, institutions, rules and regulations, perceptions, self-identity, awareness, rationality, unemployment, social disorder, political instability, terrorism, ideology, traditions, diffusion, assimilation and radicalization.
There were many other variables which were changing the behaviour and orientations of the Youth in the context of political perspectives. The main focus was given to the major variables which were given below to explore the facts and explain the importance of the voting behaviour of Youth.
Mass media has influenced the voting behaviour of Youth due to various quick and urgent source of information. In this age of modernity the means of communication are playing significant role in the change and development of voting behaviour with effective and easily understandable way. It is generally refers to various means of communication. For instance, television, internet, radio, and the newspaper etc. are different kinds of mass media.
Media is a lifeline of socialization. This study describes the terms political socialization and political communication. The field of political communication interacts between media and political systems at local, national and international level. Public opinion is made in democracy by voting and responding to polls besides participating in elections. Special emphasis has been put on electioneering campaigns, voting behaviours and role of media in creating political awareness.
(Jan, 2011, p.212)
In Pakistan there is large number of private television channels which are performing a major role in the talk shows about different political issues of the country. A large amount of data for political issues is provided in the programs for the political awareness of the Youth. More than one hundred private and government television channels are working 24 hours with a variety of political programs at local and global level issues related to Pakistan.
The most popular private television channel is Geo in which the Mr.HamidMir, and Mr.Kamran Khan are very much famous persons. ARY is also another popular television channel in which Mubashir Luqman is prominent person. Other television channels are ABTAKK, AAJ, Geo Sports, Express, Dunya, CNN, BBC, and PTV etc.
PTV is owned by the Government of Pakistan. The private television channels started during the Tenure of General Pervaiz Musharraf. He had given the freedom to all private television channels.
There are some other television channels like SAMAA , Capital, DAWN News, CNBC and DIN etc which are getting popularity by improving their working style and scope. They all are competing with each other and providing service to public and private sectors.
Internet has become very popular in spreading the political knowledge among the Youth of Pakistan. Most the Young people are used to internet on daily basis with variety of ways. The Facebook is commonly used by the young people where there is a lot of material to share among the youth. It’s a ready and easy source of information about the contemporary circumstances of the country.
Similarly twitter, Skype and YouTube is also playing their role in the updates of the country at a broader level of sharing and learning of political information’s. No one can deny the importance of internet among the youth.
The researcher conducted the interview with his respondent and asked about the importance of internet in developing the voting behaviour. His name was Ali and he belonged to Islamabad. He was living in Sector G-11/4 since his birth. He said that, “I believe the only thing which makes me alive is internet.”
He said that when I was a student of 10th class, he regularly used internet because every day he got a lot from his friends about the political situations of country. He was using internet because it brought him updates of various political parties and their contributions to the country.
I was able to compare the performance of the different political parties. Through the internet I started interaction with my friends about the selection of the political party in the future. At the age of eighteen he participated in the elections 2013 and cast his vote to PTI because of great political leader Imran Khan. He also said that he had cast his vote because it was his responsibility to participate in the elections for the bright future of his country.
He explained his point of view in detail that PTI was a new party with new policies and vision for the betterment of the country. The old political parties were not good for the country. They had caused a lot of problems in the country for everyone. They had destroyed the life of ordinary people because of their own interests. They did not care about the other people of the country who were living in miserable conditions.
He claimed, “PTI will change the entire system of the country in a way which can bring prosperity in the Pakistan”.
Radio is also a major source of information with various kinds of programs. Through Radio many Young people are provided with news and updates of the country as well as the other countries of the world. No doubt the listeners of Radio are less as compared to the user of internet in the urban areas of the country but it is significant in the spread of news with a cost effective and easier access way to every person of the country.
It is the age of modern people with shortage of time due to professionalism in each sector of the world. Everyone wants much in less time. The orientation of the Young People is also same because the Young People use their time in many activities for the betterment of their future. Cost benefit analysis is ruling thing in the society of this age.
People want more with scarifying less. That is why Youth used to read newspapers and magazines very infrequent way. They need things just a click. The important thing is that these are the hard components of available information about the updates and used for evidences in different purposes by the citizens of every society.
In the modern societies the sharpest and busiest persons are always the young people because of their energy and freshness. They are the potential persons of the society and provide opportunities to development and progress of the nation. They just save their time to do many things.
The famous newspapers are Daily Jang, Dawn, The Nation, The News, Express News, Daily Nawa-e-Waqt, Daily Dunya, Daily Pakistan, The Post, The Frontier Post, The Statesman, The Pakistan Today, Business Recorder, Daily Times, The Friday Times, Lahore Post, The Star, Pakistan State Times, The News International, Daily Pakistan, Worldwide Events, Kawish and Pakistan Observer etc.
Similarly the famous magazines in Pakistan are Consumer Voice, Daily Times, Expo World, Fashion Central, Humsay, Newsweek Pakistan, News line, Pakistan & Gulf Economist, Pakistan Textile Journal, Pakistan Business Journal, Spider, Shaheen Annual Youth Magazine, Standards Gazette International, Herald, The Cricketer, Pharmaceutical Review, The Minister, Pakistan Chemical Directory, Consumer Voice, Daily Times, Expo World, and Fashion Central etc. These newspapers and magazines are published in local and international languages for the facilitation of the public. They are in English, Urdu, Sindhi, Punjabi and Saraiki languages etc.
These are several magazines published in Urdu language like Anchal, Charge Sheet, Akhbar e Jahan, Audio Video Satellite, Computing, Family Magazine, Amali Science, and Global Science etc. for the public of Pakistan. These all are providing information and changing the living style of the people. These are full of topics about politics, social issues, economic awareness, industrial news, innovations, cultural events, administration, science, religion, journalism, art, folklore, and architecture, fashion, music and much about the local and global level. In the nut shell, mass media enhancing globalization and changing the world. The researcher conducted a survey from his 100 respondents and found the following results as a sample to understand the phenomenon.
|Source||Total Number of Respondents|
|Newspaper & Magazines||10|
|(Source: Field data during research)|