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Introduction to Social Research

Introduction to Social Research
Lecture No.1
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Social sciences require the systematic study to understand and actualize the social world with relevant and accurate methodologies adopted in the research. The term systematic is embedded in the support of studying phenomena of nature which are considered important to acquire controlled and empirical data through critical investigations. Theory and hypothesis act as an advisor to find the reality of relations among social world phenomena.

The observations need an approach of practicing systematic and controlled ways of doing a research that will ultimately affect the reality of the results. The researcher should emphasize on the empiricism and work with a critical approach in order to testify the natural phenomena. The researcher focuses on the testing of subjective beliefs until the attainment of objective reality. This work leads to further testing and scrutiny.

Types of research

Applied Research:

In this research the collected data from the field work is utilized to solve prevailing problems of the society with the emphasis on the betterment and progress of the planned objectives. For instance the applied research contains the evaluation research, action research and cost-benefit analysis as well as social impact assessment studies.

Action Research:
The type of research in which the involvement of all related stakeholders is compulsory to achieve the targeted plans for the successful completion of the projects. There is need for high level of cooperation and coordination among all the stakeholders including the researcher, consultants and beneficiaries.
Basic Research:

The acquiring of new forms of information during the field work about the specific topic presented in targeted universe. This is known as pure research because of its very nature of getting innovative information focused sample of the related universe of the people. Simply we can say that it is a way to discover the new data which is important to study the subject.

Casual Research:

The study of dependent and independent variables to know about their causal ties and relations is known as casual research.

Classificatory Research:
Classifications means to draw a line of differences and distinguishing among the social and natural phenomena which are supposed to be the main study of the research topic. The categorization and division due to differences and similarities is considered to explain the relations of the areas focused on the targeted populations.

Comparative Research:
There is a statement prepared from the collected data that presents the merits and demerits, advantages and disadvantages, distinctions and similarities of the research topics.
Descriptive Research:

Such researches are focused on the descriptions of systems, events and ties about the study in a specific manner by adopting suitable methodologies and techniques.

Exploratory Research:
In this type of research the exploration of the research topic is conducted before the start of the research. It is important to note the formation of criteria which is needed to accomplish the study in a smooth, systematic and planned way.

Explanatory Research:

Social relationships and events are explained in detail in this kind of research which is known as explanatory research.
Evaluation research leads to assess the progress of the planned and designed work plan of the projects after and during the implementation of the phase.

Feminist research is conducted by the women in order to obtain real data from the women perspective because women can understand the problems of women in purity and objective manner. Child bearing and rearing is better understood by the women rather the men.

Longitudinal research studies social issues on more than one occasion using the same or different samples.

Participatory action research (PAR) is characterized by the strong involvement and degree of participation of members of the public in the research process.
Theory testing research aims to test the validity of a theory.

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