US-led War on Terror in Afghanistan (2001-2008) Part-1
US faced very alarming situations when it was attacked by the Terrorists in September 11, 2001. It was a severe attack in the history of US after the Pearl Harbour. This attack was planned by the small group of religious extremists who wanted to impairment the people of US. They were motivated and their ideologies were implanted by Terrorists. These attacks surprised the whole world and changed the social and political world in totality.
The incident of 9/11 resulted in revenge and forced the US President to take the military action against the Terrorists. The Article 5 was raised and a war started to destroy the Terrorists by US and NATO. After that it was declared by the President George W. Bush to take military actions in opposition to the Al-Qaeda which was believed the enemies of his homeland. Thus the US-led War on Terror started in Afghanistan.
The War on Terror was not a simple response to the 9/11 attacks as it had some other additional historical backgrounds which were based on religious differences among the stakeholders. There were no proven evidences about the involvement of Osama Bin Ladin in the incident of 9/11. There were some reports about the past attacks on American people who were high officials in the American government. Some instances of such incidents were bombing attacks on the US embassies in other countries like Tanzania and Kenya in the year of 1998. These terrible incidents were happened in the regime of Clinton. There had been an incident in Aden in which the USS Cole in port of Yemen was attacked in 2000. These attacks were considered the involvement of Osama Bin Ladin. The regime of Clinton was not so operation oriented as compared to Bush. Clinton administration had not made a single attempt to organize military invasion in Afghanistan and other countries of the world.
Bush was against the Iran, Iraq and North Korea as he believed that these countries were danger to America. Bush said in his speech when he was addressing to Congress that he had decided to remove the government of Iraq just because it was planning to expand dangerous war weapons like poisonous gases, anthrax and nuclear armaments. He decided to take action against these countries to ensure democracy practices. President Bush was not satisfied with the response of Iraq as he wanted the submissiveness of Iraq to America that Iraq had denied. He had considered these mentioned countries as a coalition of evil for USA.
United States of America failed in implementing democracy in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although USA had to bear social and economic cost to ensure democracy in both countries, it had not achieved significant achievements. USA had made hard efforts and paid cost for its invasion but the outcomes were severe and established anti-American sentiments in the region. There were many faults in the policies of President Bush in respect of US-led War on Terror in Afghanistan and Iraq. The strategic and military operations related policies needed sufficient work and reforms to influence the political structures of the both countries.
Role of Neurons in War Quagmire:
The incident of September 11 was one of horrible in the history of USA. These attacks had been the most severe and destructive actions that were instigated by Osama Bin Ladin and Al-Qaeda.The terror, sense of fear, unrest, horror, disorder and dissonance had stretched in the people of America. The people of America had no idea about such kind of incident that could transpire in USA. This was beyond the expectations of the subjects of USA. They became frightened and lost their patience to face these accidents. These attacks had become a challenge for the government of the state. Ultimately, President Bush demanded Osama Bin Ladin from Taliban as they had provided shelter to master mind of 9/11 attacks. Unfortunately, Taliban refused to accept the demand of President Bush as it was against the dignity of Taliban and their cultural norms. After that refusal US-led War on Terror started against Taliban in Afghanistan which was resulted in the end of their rule. The Taliban regime had wrecked in the year of 2001 by US invasion in Afghanistan. Similarly US invaded in Iraq in 2003 and threw out the rule of Saddam Hussein. Theses US-led invasions were designed by the administration of Bush which was not planned before by any of the previous administrations of USA.
The National Security Council started reviews in the beginning of late summer of 2009 to achieve its security goals. The importance was given to the different packages of force that was highlighted in the write ups of Bob Woodward as “Obama’s Wars” throughout the debate. A national security analyst naming Anthony Cordesman had not agreed with these reviews. He emphasized on the most important elements of the strategy for security which were Afghan sleaze, tribal and ethnic strains and assortment, reserve supplies and outfitted and strategic hazard.
The policies that President Bush made for the military operations were questionable due to their outcomes in the regard of planned structures of actions. The goals designed for War on Terror were not successfully achieved because the resultant of these invasions in Iraq and Afghanistan made the scenarios quite unexpected. The emergence of anti-American sentiments and uncertainty for the future attacks was not ensured in the policies of President Bush. The War on Terror was initiated due to the incidents of 9/11. Bush had not considered the results of these US-led military operations. According to his policies the American people had become insecure as Taliban and Al-Qaeda would take revenge any time in mature and planned attacks. These actions will be continuing due to wrong policies on Bush administration that is not professional but personal. There were many other peaceful ways to overcome the terrorists from the world. The designed and planned operations were lacking of many gaps in their structures. The invasions in Iraq and Afghanistan proved partial success in the achievement of commited goals. The American public is not satisfied with this partial success as they have paid a lot for their security and stability.
President Bush also decided to ensure freedom in the Middle East and he stated this in November 6, 2003 during the 20th anniversary of the National Endowment for Democracy. He said that the American Nation was insecure because the democracy practices were not launched in the countries of Middle East. These countries were a major threat for the establishment of peace in the world as well as in USA. He believed that without the democratization of countries of Middle East, the USA and its allies would be insecure. There was an expected threat due to lack of freedom. His ideas were to flourish freedom in the Middle East with military operations. He was of opinion that it was supporting the terrorists and oppressing the freedom that would harm the world.
This new strategy for implementing freedom in Middle East will enhance the situations of establishing peace and harmony in the world. It also needs the mature planning, projection, energy and ideology as similar to the previous policies in War on Terror. The results of ensuring freedom in the Middle East will be comparable to the Europe, Asia and all over the world.
Bush wanted to democratize not only in Iraq and Afghanistan but also to spread it all over the world. He had the aim to ensure democracy in Morocco, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Yemen, Kuwait, Jordan and Saudi Arabia. He also mentioned these above countries to be included in democratic states for the sake of ensuring freedom. He demonstrated the ideas for public freedom. He also demanded the support from the leaders of Palestine, Iranand Egypt in this regard of democracy.
US President Bush differed with the cultural and religious barriers in spread of democracy in the Middle East. He mentioned the support to the countries of the different regions in implementing democracy. His NED speech in Georgia was important to its significance that it showed the orientations of Bush to enhance and encourage democracy in the Middle East. He considered that freedom is better way to progress and prosperity that must be explored.
Bush was considering that cultural and religious practices did not allow the freedom and democracy. He undermined the importance of cultural and religious values for the spread of democracy. Islamic countries were prating democracy in the world like Indonesia and turkey which was going smoothly and ensuring the freedom. The progress of democracy is significant in Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Malaysia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Lebanon and Kyrgyzstan. It was also moving in the other non-Muslim and Muslim countries of the world.
“Full text: State of the Union address”. BBC News. January 30, 2002. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
Anthony H. Cordsman, “The Debate We Should Be Having,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, October 7, 2009, http://csis.org/publication/us-strategy-afghanistan (accessed December 30, 2010).
Remarks by President George W. Bush at the 20th Anniversary of the National Endowment for Democracy, United States Chamber of Commerce, Washington, D.C, NOV 6, 2003.
Mark N. Katz, “Assessing the Bush Strategy for Winning the ‘War on Terror’,” Middle East Policy Council, October 7, 2010.