US-led War on Terror in Afghanistan (2001-2008) Part-5
Implications for Pakistan
The border area surrounded by Pushtun is the place for shelter where the Taliban used to subsist for their survival.When we look into the historical back ground of this specific border area, it has been a route to enter the subcontinent. Different warriors, jihadi groups and enigmatic religious leaders have been come to pass this area for the purpose of creating disorder for both countries. They were like Taliban because of their anti state policies and activities. Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 picked up the pace when the radical policy of Pakistan in playing with fire instigated and resulted in the subversion of Pushtun tribal structures in the early 1970s.
This created a vacuum for the intervention of extremists who had taken control over a district of Pakistan. The ruler of this extremist group was conservative and rigid religious persons called as “ulemas.” The new political system replaced the Pushtun cultural and traditional meetings and jirgas for the maintenance of social and political order in a state of equilibrium. The Taliban regime was lengthy in Afghanistan and strengthened the jihadi movements as compared to other jihadi movements. They brought more successful social dynamics in the region with systematic consolidation and entrench.
FATA and Waziristan was a safe place for the people who need shelter from the Pushtun society. The Pushtun society always used to welcome the people who request for shelter because of their Pushtun Wali Code of Conduct in which hospitality is the core value. When the Soviet- Afghan War was ended, the militant Taliban were forced to flee from Afghanistan. They used the area located in FATA and Waziristan because of the hospitality culture of Pushtun. The Taliban started to reorganize and recruited new militants directly and through madrassahs (religious seminaries). The locals of these Pustun areas were emotionally attached with religion. They had hatred with Western countries and low level of income in Pakistan. Because of low level of living patterns and hatred with Western countries, the new recruitments, established a prolific nursery for new group of militants.
The belt of Pakistan tribal area adjacent to Afghanistan was used by Taliban. They started war because of the disintegration of the Taliban in 2001 which was named as jihad. This jihad was focused against the allies of Afghanistan.The Taliban faced no hurdles from the state of Pakistan as the writ of the state did not run in these border areas.
The border area of South Waziristan was controlled by the warlord Hakimullah Mehsud. The ruler of North Waziristan was Sadiq Noor who had powers to hold the area. Similarly the area of Mirali was occupied by the Iraqi Arab Abu Kasha. The Taliban were defeated due to US-led Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan resulted in colossal penetration of al-Qaeda from Afghanistan into neighboring countries. As a spectator, Iran has always predestined the Taliban because of their anti-Shia operations in Afghanistan. The neighbouring countries were facing pathetic law and order situations because of the Taliban. Then the al-Qaeda members and the Taliban had taken refuge in these border areas of Pakistan. The penetration of such militants was alarming for the state of Pakistan resulting in defame at a global level. These border areas are located in the territory of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Government of Pakistan started to overcome such alien intervention in the region. After a period of serious considerations, the state had taken serious action against the Taliban. The military intervention against the Taliban created unrest specifically in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The social, economic and political systems of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa were desperately disturbed due to the military operation of Pakistan Army.
The Taliban were powerful as compared to the locals of the tribal areas. They have disturbed the life of locals of the area. They discouraged the female education. The entertainment activities were banned. The level of investment for the development of the border areas was insignificant. Listening music and watching television was reluctant. The Taliban forced the locals to obey for their survival. These Taliban were influenced by al-Qaeda who had made the life of locals very hard and miserable. This new group of the Taliban was dictating the locals y the conservative interpretations of Islam. They were the followers of a distorted version of the Deobandi school of thought. Mostly they belonged to different regions of the world like Chechnya, Bosnia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Arab, and Egypt.
The incident of 9/11 in America caused many challenges for Pakistan. US war against terrorism is not proved as progressive for Pakistan. Many factors have created the issue of militancy in Pakistan. The whole states of affairs of Pakistan have changed as the US operation in Afghanistan.Before the incident of 9/11, the peace and state of equilibrium was established in the tribal areas of Pakistan. There were no single incidents of suicide attack in the areas of Pakistan. During and after the US war against terrorism the economic, political, and social structures of the Pakistan including the tribal areas were becoming bad to worst positions. The last Ten years has put Pakistan in severe attacks that have resulted in the massive human and economical losses. Security forces and civilians were the victimized because of this war against terrorism.
People of Pakistan have lost their family members including children, women, and men of different ages.The question is that where does the militant come from? The border areas are the main source of trafficking. Pakistan, Afghanistan border areas are significantly used for the transportation of such kind of militants. Pakistan has launched many military operations in these areas to clean the aliens and anti-state militants. The Swat, Bajaur and South Waziristan agency are included in such operations launched by the Pakistani forces to clear the area from foreign militants. US pressure is significant on the Government of Pakistan in the process of cleaning the militants. Currently, USA is putting pressure on Pakistan to launch a military operation in the areas of North Waziristan Agency for elimination of Haqqani Network in Pakistan.
United States of America has many allies in war against terrorism but the front line ally is Pakistan. Because of this alliance, Pakistan has to bear a huge level of losses in this war. Militancy, extremism, target killing, drone attacks, civilian casualties, economic meltdown and sectarian violence are the main catastrophes for Pakistan. There is no doubt that war against terrorism will result in heavy losses for Pakistan. The reason for this heavy price is the presence of USA in Afghanistan and no check over the long Pak Afghan border areas. The mobility of militants from Pak Afghan border is a severe threat for the security and sovereignty of Pakistan. Looking into the matter, it is predicted that the situations of such unrest in the region is anti-American sentiments in the militants and their affiliated groups. This war is imposed on Pakistan by USA. The situation is very pathetic. Pakistan has become a sandwich in this war against terrorism. The militants and Americans are destroying the masses of Pakistan. United States of America is at a stage of trust deficit for Pakistan in policies of military operations. United States of America is demanding for military operation in North Waziristan Agency. The forces of Pakistan are not considering it as beneficial for the security and sovereignty of state.
- Ulema are persons educated in the teachings of Islam. Technically, the word means the body of educated religious men in a given area, but more narrowly it is taken to mean the local group of mullawan and maulvis who make up a shura, a new phenomenon in the region.
- Under the passion of the tradition of hospitality, the Pashtuns of the tribal areas welcomed as well as the foreign mujahideen on culmination of the Soviet war in 1989, and these mujahideen used this area as their permanent abode. Similarly, on the US invasion of Afghanistan, a large number of the Taliban fled to the very tribal belt and took refuge. They established their safe havens and the United States still believes that the resistance in Afghanistan is being backed from this tribal region.
- Pakistan shares a 1500 miles long border with Afghanistan and some 300 passes link Afghanistan with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan.